The Russians

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The Russians broke out the vodka. A toast! Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin were walking around on the moon.
“In the old days we would have called this North America,” Deffeyes said, sinking another clear tube into the ground. “We now think of plates. The plate-tectonics revolution came as a surprise, with very little buildup to it. There was none of tlrnt cloud that precedes a political revolution. In the nineteen-fifties, when I was a graduate student, nearly all the faculty at Princeton thought continental drift was sheer baloney. A couple of years later, Harry Hess broke it open. I had thought I would go through my career without anything like it. Oil and mining seemed enough of a contribution to keep one going. But now something had flexplek huren amsterdam come along that was so profound that it took the whole science with it. We used to think that continents grew like onions around old rock. That was overturned by plate tectonics. And we could see now how amazingly fast you could put
up a mountain range. A continent-to-continent collision was a hell of an episode at a limited place. After the Appalachians and the Urals were recognized as continent-to-continent sutures, people said, ‘O.K., where’s the suture in California?’ Geologists kept jumping up and saying, ‘I’ve got the suture! I’ve got the suture!’ It turned out, of course, that there were at least three sutures. In each instance, a great island had closed up a sea and hit into America-just as India hit Tibet, just as Kodiak Island, which is a mini-India, is about to plow into Alaska. Fossils from the mid-Pacific have been found here in the West, and limestones that lithified a thousand miles south of the equator. Formations in flexplek huren leeuwarden California have alien fossils with cousins in the rock of New Guinea. For a while, people were going around naming a defunct ocean for eve1y suture. The first piece, coming in from the west, was the one that rode up onto North America about forty miles, not a trivial distance, in Mississippian time. That was the action that first tipped the rock in the Carlin unconformity. The old name for it was the Antler Orogeny. In the early Triassic, the second one arrived-the Golconda Thrust-and rode fifty miles over the trailing edge of the first one, and in the Jurassic the third one came in, sutured on somewhere near Sacramento, and more or less completed California. I have read that two geologists have found in Siberia a displaced terrane that was taken off of North America. The Lord giveth and the Lord taketh away.” I mentioned that I had read in Geology that one out of eight geologists does not accept plate-tectonic theory. He said, “There are still a few people dragging their feet. They don’t want to come into the story.”